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Newbie’s information to server-side Swift utilizing the Hummingbird framework


Swift on the Server in 2023

Three years in the past I began to deal with Vapor, the preferred web-framework written in Swift, which served me very nicely through the years, however now it’s time to begin a brand new chapter in my life.

As I realized increasingly more about how servers work I noticed that Vapor has it is personal professionals and cons. The neighborhood modified rather a lot in the course of the previous 3 years, some core members left and new individuals began to keep up the framework. I additionally had some struggles with the default template engine (Leaf) and lately I began to show away from the summary database layer (Fluent) too. One other ache level for me is the rising variety of dependencies, I barely use websockets & multipart-kit, however Vapor has these dependencies by default and you’ll’t do away with them. 😒

Vapor has some very nice issues to supply, and for most people it is nonetheless going to be a fantastic alternative for constructing backends for frontends (BFFs). For me, Vapor reached its limits and I needed to make use of one thing that feels a bit lighter. Somethings that’s modular, one thing that may be simply prolonged and suits my actual wants with out further (unused) bundle dependencies.

This shiny new factor known as Hummingbird and it seems to be very promising. It was created by Adam Fowler who’s a member of the SSWG and likewise the primary writer of the Soto library (AWS Swift).

Hummingbird has a complete documentation obtainable on-line and a pleasant instance repository containing numerous demo apps written utilizing the Hummingbird Swift server framework. I consider that the very best a part of the the framework is modularity & extensibility. By the best way, Hummingbird works with out Basis, however it has extensions for Basis objects, this can be a big plus for me, however perhaps that is simply my private choice these days. Hummingbird may be prolonged simply, you will discover some very helpful extensions below the Hummingbird venture web page, lengthy story brief it really works with Fluent and it is comparatively simple to get together with it when you have some Vapor data… πŸ€”

Getting began with Hummingbird

Initially, there isn’t a toolbox or command line utility to assist the kickoff course of, however you’ll be able to at all times obtain the examples repository and use one of many initiatives as a place to begin. Alternatively you’ll be able to set every thing up by hand, that is what we’ll do now. πŸ”¨

With a view to construct a brand new software utilizing the Hummingbird framework you must create a brand new listing and initialize a brand new Swift bundle utilizing the next instructions:

mkdir server && cd $_
swift bundle init --type executable
open Bundle.swift

This may create a brand new Swift bundle and open the Bundle.swift file in Xcode. You should use your individual editor in case you do not like Xcode, however both approach you will have so as to add Hummingbird to your bundle manifest file as a dependency. We’ll setup an App goal for the appliance itself, and a Server goal for the primary executable, which is able to use the appliance and configure it as wanted.


import PackageDescription

let bundle = Bundle(
    identify: "server",
    platforms: [
        .macOS(.v10_15),
    ],
    dependencies: [
        .package(
            url: "https://github.com/hummingbird-project/hummingbird",
            from: "1.0.0"
        ),
        .package(
            url: "https://github.com/apple/swift-argument-parser",
            from: "1.0.0"
        ),
    ],
    targets: [
        .executableTarget(
            name: "Server",
            dependencies: [
                .product(
                    name: "ArgumentParser",
                    package: "swift-argument-parser"
                ),
                .target(name: "App"),
            ]
        ),
        .goal(
            identify: "App",
            dependencies: [
                .product(
                    name: "Hummingbird",
                    package: "hummingbird"
                ),
                .product(
                    name: "HummingbirdFoundation",
                    package: "hummingbird"
                ),
            ],
            swiftSettings: [
                .unsafeFlags(
                    ["-cross-module-optimization"],
                    .when(configuration: .launch)
                ),
            ]
        ),
        .testTarget(
            identify: "AppTests",
            dependencies: [
                .product(
                    name: "HummingbirdXCT",
                    package: "hummingbird"
                ),
                .target(name: "App"),
            ]
        ),
    ]
)

Please create the mandatory file and listing construction, as listed under, earlier than you proceed to the following steps. It is rather vital to call issues as they seem, in any other case SPM will not work and the venture will not compile. Anyway, the venture construction is kind-of Vapor-like as you’ll be able to see. πŸ’§

.
β”œβ”€β”€ Bundle.resolved
β”œβ”€β”€ Bundle.swift
β”œβ”€β”€ README.md
β”œβ”€β”€ Sources
β”‚ β”œβ”€β”€ App
β”‚ β”‚ └── HBApplication+Configure.swift
β”‚ └── Server
β”‚     └── foremost.swift
└── Checks
    └── AppTests
        └── AppTests.swift

The subsequent step is to create the primary entry level for the appliance. For this function Hummingbird makes use of the Swift Argument Parser library. Place the next contents into the primary.swift file:

import ArgumentParser
import Hummingbird
import App

struct HummingbirdCommand: ParsableCommand {

    @Possibility(identify: .shortAndLong)
    var hostname: String = "127.0.0.1"

    @Possibility(identify: .shortAndLong)
    var port: Int = 8080

    func run() throws {
        let app = HBApplication(
            configuration: .init(
                tackle: .hostname(hostname, port: port),
                serverName: "Hummingbird"
            )
        )
        strive app.configure()
        strive app.begin()
        app.wait()
    }
}

HummingbirdCommand.foremost()

The HummingbirdCommand has two choices, you’ll be able to setup a customized hostname and port by offering these values as command line choices (I will present it in a while), the appliance itself will setup the tackle utilizing the enter after which it will begin listening on the required port.

The configure technique comes from the App goal, that is the place you’ll be able to customise your server occasion, register route handlers and stuff like that, similar to you’d do that in Vapor. The primary distinction is that Hummingbird makes use of the HB namespace, which is fairly useful, and the configure technique is written as an extension. Let’s write it and register a primary route handler. 🧩

import Hummingbird
import HummingbirdFoundation

public extension HBApplication {

    func configure() throws {

        router.get("/") { _ in
            "Hey, world!"
        }
    }
}

That is it. Now you must be capable to run your server, you’ll be able to press the Play button in Xcode that’ll begin your software or enter one of many following instructions into the Terminal software:

# simply run the server
swift run Server

# customized hostname and port
swift run Server --port 3000
swift run Server --hostname 0.0.0.0 --port 3000

# brief model
swift run Server -p 3000
swift run Server -h 0.0.0.0 -p 3000

# set the log degree (https://github.com/apple/swift-log#log-levels)
LOG_LEVEL=discover swift run Server -p 3000

# make launch construct
swift construct -c launch

# copy launch construct to the native folder
cp .construct/launch/Server ./Server

# run the executable
LOG_LEVEL=discover ./Server -p 3000

You’ll be able to set these values in Xcode too, simply click on on the server scheme and choose the Edit Scheme… menu merchandise. Just remember to’re on the Run goal, displaying the Arguments tag. Merely provde the Arguments Handed On Launch choices to set a customized hostname or port and you’ll set the log degree by including a brand new merchandise into the Atmosphere Variables part.

If you would like to unit check your software, I’ve obtained a excellent news for you. Hummingbird additionally comes with a pleasant utility software referred to as HummingbirdXCT, which you’ll be able to simply setup & use if you would like to run some checks in opposition to your API. In our venture, merely alter the AppTests.swift file.

import Hummingbird
import HummingbirdXCT
import XCTest
@testable import App

last class AppTests: XCTestCase {
    
    func testHelloWorld() throws {
        let app = HBApplication(testing: .reside)
        strive app.configure()

        strive app.XCTStart()
        defer { app.XCTStop() }

        strive app.XCTExecute(uri: "/", technique: .GET) { response in
            XCTAssertEqual(response.standing, .okay)

            let expectation = "Hey, world!"
            let res = response.physique.map { String(buffer: $0) }
            XCTAssertEqual(res, expectation)
        }
    }
}

As a substitute of making the appliance from the primary entry level, we are able to arrange a brand new HBApplication occasion, import the App framework and name the configure technique on it. the XCT framework comes with a customized XCTStart and XCTStop technique, and you’ll execute HTTP requests utilizing the XCTExecute operate. The response is out there in a completion block and it is doable to look at the standing code and extract the physique utilizing a handy String initializer.

As you’ll be able to see Hummingbird is sort of much like Vapor, however it’s light-weight and you’ll nonetheless add these additional issues to your server when it’s wanted. Hummingbird looks like the following iteration of Vapor. I actually do not know if Vapor 5, goes to repair the problems I am at the moment having with the framework or not, however I do not actually care, as a result of that launch will not occur anytime quickly.

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