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HomeNanotechnologyFocused degradation of oncogenic BCR-ABL by silencing the gene of NEDD8 E3...

Focused degradation of oncogenic BCR-ABL by silencing the gene of NEDD8 E3 ligase RAPSYN | Journal of Nanobiotechnology

siRNA synthesis

siRAPSYN, NC-siRNA was synthesized by RiboBio Co., Ltd. (Guangzhou, China). FAM-labeled siRNA (Fam-siRNA) and Cy5-labeled siRNA (Cy5-siRNA) have been ready by Sangon (Nanjing, China).

Cell cultures

The cell strains of K562 (feminine; CBP60529), MEG-01 (male; BP61104), KU812 (male; BP60732) have been bought from COBIOER in a mix containing 10%-20% fetal bovine serum (FBS; FS301-02, TransGen Biotech) and 100 mg/mL streptomycin/penicillin (FG101-01, TransGen Biotech). HS-5 cells (male; CRL11882) have been from American Sort Tradition Assortment (ATCC) in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s culture-medium (1640; KGM12800, KeyGEN BioTECH) containing 10% FBS and 100 mg/mL streptomycin/penicillin. All cells have been cultured in a moisture incubator containing 5% CO2 at 37 °C. All cell strains have been recognized by brief tandem repeat matching evaluation and have been free from mycoplasma contamination.


NOD/ShiLtJGpt Prkdcem26Cd52Il2rgem26Cd22/Gpt (NCG) feminine mice (4–6 weeks) have been from GemPharmatech Co., Ltd (Nanjing, China). Mice have been positioned in a barrier facility underneath pathogen-free situations of 24 ± 1% and 55 ± 5% humidity for a light-weight–darkish cycle of 12 h. All animal experiments have been performed in compliance with the WMA Assertion on animal use in biomedical analysis, and authorized (No. 2020-07-009) by the Animal Care and Use Committee of China Pharmaceutical College (Nanjing, China).

Cell transfection of the liposomes

Transfection of the indicated siRNA into cells was carried out with the liposomes ready with OA2, TA7 and TA13 in addition to business riboFECT™ CP (Ribobio, Guangzhou, China). Briefly, when the cell confluency reached 50%, siRNA and liposomes have been diluted in deionized water and incubated for 30 min at room temperature, respectively. Then, the mixtures have been added into the goal cells. Transfected cells have been collected after 48 h for additional analyses.

Gene knockdown in vitro

K562, KU812 and MEG-01 cells have been inoculated into 6-well plates at a density of 1 × 10^6 cells per mL. Cells have been incubated with OA2-siNC or OA2-siRAPSYN at a dose of 1 μg/mL siRNA in a damp ambiance of 5% CO2 at 37 ℃ for 48 h. In response to the producer’s directions, complete RNA was extracted utilizing TRIzol® reagents (Invitrogen, CA, USA), and the RNA was reverse-transcribed to cDNA utilizing Evo M-MLV reverse transcription premix equipment (Correct Biology, Nanjing). Then, SYBR Inexperienced Professional Taq HS premixed qPCR equipment (Correct Biology, Nanjing) was used to detect the transcriptional ranges of goal genes in every group. A two-step RT-PCR was carried out on a Biosystems StepOnePlus real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR equipment. Pattern evaluation was performed in triplicate. The extent of goal gene in a given pattern was normalized to the corresponding degree of GAPDH. The relative transcription of goal gene was calculated by 2-∆∆Ct methodology.

The primers utilized in qRT-PCR for RAPSYN and GAPDH have been as follows:


  • 5’-TGGCATCCAGAGCCTTGTCC-3’ (RAPSYN Reverse primer);


  • 5’-TGGAAGATGGTGATGGGATT-3’ (GAPDH Reverse primer).

Western blot

Complete proteins have been obtained by cell lysis (Beyotime, Nanjing, China), and protein samples of the identical focus have been electrophorized on 8% or 10% SDS-PAGE after which transferred to PVDF membranes (Millipore, USA). After incubating with anti-RAPSYN (Abcam, Cambridge, GB), anti-BCR-ABL (Abcam, Cambridge, GB), anti-Wnt5b (Abcam, Cambridge, GB), anti-c-Myc (Proteintech, Wuhan, China), anti-β-catenin (Proteintech, Wuhan, China), and anti-β-Tubulin (Proteintech, Wuhan, China) in a single day at 4 ℃, then incubated with secondary antibody of goat anti-rabbit IgG/HRP (CST know-how, Boston, USA) or goat anti-mouse IgG/HRP (CST know-how, Boston, USA) at room temperature for two h. Lastly, protein bands have been visualized utilizing ECL system (Tanon 3500).

Cell viability assay

The cells have been inoculated into 96-well plates with a density of 10,000 cells per nicely, and incubated with 1 μg/mL siRNA or siNC for twenty-four, 48, 72, 96 h. The cell viability was measured utilizing CCK-8 assay equipment (Vazyme, Nanjing, China) based on the producer’s directions. Every experiment for every cell line was repeated for no less than 3 times.

Cell apoptosis assay

The apoptosis index of cells handled with OA2-siNC or OA2-siRAPSYN for twenty-four h was detected by annexin V-FITC Apoptosis Check equipment (BD Biosciences, San Jose, USA). Move cytometry was employed to research the cells with the software program of FlowJo model 10.6.1.

Cell proliferation assay

In response to the protocol of the CFDA SE cell proliferation and tracer detection equipment (Beyotime, Nanjing, China), cells with logarithmic progress stage have been labeled, after which OA2-siNC or OA2-siRAPSYN was added, respectively. Cell division was monitored by measuring CFSE utilizing movement cytometry by way of channel 488 at day 0, day 2, and day 4.

Willpower of the neddylation of BCR-ABL

One mg of complete protein extracted from cells was incubated with IgG or BCR-ABL antibody for 1 h, after which Protein A/G agarose pressure (Bioworld, Nanjing, China) was added for in a single day incubation at 4 ℃. On the second day, after washing the beads with PBS for 4 instances, pattern buffer was added and boiled for protein denaturation. Protein focus of the cells was adjusted to the identical for sampling, and separated by 6% SDS-PAGE for the switch to PVDF membrane. Then, 5% skim milk powder was added and incubated with anti-BCR-ABL antibody (Abcam, Cambridge, GB) or anti-NEDD8 antibody (Abcam, Cambridge, GB) at 4 ℃ in a single day. Subsequently, the samples have been incubated with corresponding secondary antibody at room temperature for two h. The goal bands have been visualized utilizing ECL system (Tanon 3500).

Detection of CD79B expression

A 24-well plate was coated with Poly-D-Lysine (Beyotime, Shanghai, China), after which 2 × 10^5 K562 cells have been inoculated into every nicely. After the attachment of the cells with plate wall, anti-CD79B antibody (Proteintech, Wuhan, China) was added to incubate at room temperature for 1 h. Then, the secondary antibody labeled with 488 dye (CST know-how, Boston, USA) was added and incubated for 1 h. Lastly, the conjugates have been incubated with DAPI for five min for the comparability underneath fluorescence microscope.

Expression and purification of anti-CD79B-scFv

Plasmid building: The amino acid sequence of anti-CD79B (L/H) scFv was from US patent USA20200207852, and codon optimization was carried out to make it appropriate for the expression in Escherichia coli. The gene fragment of MBP tag was inserted into pET28a vector of its N-terminus by utilizing Gibson meeting equipment, after which the codon-optimized gene (Extra file 1: Desk S1) of anti-CD79B-scFv with a 6 × His tag on its C-terminus was inserted into the pET28a plasmid containing MBP tag to consequence within the expression vector of pET28a-MBP-scFv.

Protein expression and purification: The pET28a-based plasmid of MBP-anti-CD79B-scFv-6xHis was reworked to E. coli BL21(DE3) cells (Sangon, Nanjing, China). A reworked colony was inoculated into LB containing kanamycin to tradition in a single day with shanking at 220 rpm at 37  ℃. On the second day, bacterial tradition (1:1000) was inoculated into LB medium containing 1 mg/L kanamycin and continued to develop underneath the identical situations. When OD600 of the tradition reached roughly 0.8, 0.1 mM IPTG was added to the tradition to induce protein expression at 18 ℃ and 200 rpm for 18 h. Then, the bacterial cells have been collected by centrifugation at 8000g for 10 min, and blended with 20 mL buffer (50 mM Ok2HPO4, 500 mM NaCl, 10 mM imidazole pH 7.5). After disrupting the cells by ultrasound at 120 w for 15 min, the supernatant was obtained by centrifugation at 12,000 × g for 30 min. Two affinity chromatographic steps have been employed for the purification of MBP-anti-CD79B-scFv-6 × His. First, the soluble fraction was incubated with 300 μL Ni–NTA resin (GE HealthCare) at 4 °C for 1 h after which loaded onto a gravity movement column. The protein was preliminarily purified by the elution with the buffer (50 mM Ok2HPO4, 500 mM NaCl, 300 mM imidazole, pH 7.5). Subsequent, the eluted protein was blended with dextrin sepharose resin (Cytiva, shanghai, China) and loaded onto a column for an additional affinity chromatography, and the purification was achieved by the elution with the buffer (50 mM Tris, 500 mM NaCl, 10 mM maltose, 5% glycerol, pH 7.5). Lastly, the purity of the recombinant MBP-anti-CD79B-scFv-6 × His was examined by 10% SDS-PAGE with Coomassie blue staining.

Willpower of binding affinity of scFv

The experiments have been carried out based on a earlier report [18] with minor modifications. Completely different concentrations of anti-CD79B-scFv starting from 0.0001 to 1 mg/mL have been added to every nicely in 96-well plates and incubated at 37 °C for two h. Horseradish peroxidase labeled anti-His monoclonal antibody (Proteintech, Wuhan, China) was used because the secondary antibody.

Preparation of the complexes of lipoids with siRAPSYN

TA7-siRAPSYN and TA13-siRAPSYN have been ready based on the procedures beforehand described [19].

Preparation and characterization of OA2-siRAPSYN and scFv-OA2-siRAPSYN

For OA2-siRAPSYN, OA2 have been dissolved in a mix of two mL anhydrous methanol and three mL chloroform and transferred to a 500 mL solanum-shaped bottle. After rotary evaporation at 40  ℃ for 10 min, vacuum drying in a single day was carried out to completely take away natural solvents. Then, an acceptable quantity of deionized water was added to hydrate OA2 lipid movie (ultimate OA focus of two mg/mL) at 37 ℃ for 30 min. The combination was then extruded by way of 0.8 µm, 0.4 µm and 0.2 µm carbonate movies for 11 instances every to acquire the OA2 lipid nanoparticles. Lastly, siRAPSYN was added into the answer of OA2 lipid nanoparticles at N/P of 5 at room temperature for 30 min to acquire the OA2-siRAPSYN.

Concerning scFv-OA2-siRAPSYN, OA2-DPM was first ready with the identical methodology of OA2 lipid nanoparticles apart from including the DPM at a ratio of OA2/DPM of 98:2 (mol/mol). Subsequent, to acquire scFv with free sulfhydryl teams, tris(2-carboxyethyl) phosphine (TCEP) was dissolved in PBS at 2 µmol/mL and blended with scFv at room temperature for 10 min, following the dialysis in opposition to PBS at 4 ℃ for two h to acquire the decreased scFv protein, which was then incubated with OA2-DPM at a ratio of DPM/scFv of 30:1 (mol/mol) at room temperature for two h to acquire scFv-OA2. The advanced of scFv-OA2 and siRAPSYN have been the identical as talked about earlier than.

Particle dimension, polydispersity index (PDI) and zeta potential have been decided by utilizing Laser Mild Scattering System (BL-200SM, Brookhaven, USA).

To find out siRNA stability, agarose gel electrophoresis was carried out on 1% agarose gel at an electrophoresis situation of 140 V for 20 min and visualized by gel imaging system. OA2-siRAPSYN and scFv-OA2-siRAPSYN with or with out 10% Triton X-100 answer have been respectively sampled. Free siRNA was used because the management.

For TEM pictures, completely different samples have been added onto the copper internet and stained by 1% phosphotungstic acid. After drying, TEM was carried out at 80 kV to look at the morphology (HT7700, Hitachi, Japan).

For in vitro stability, the particle sizes of OA2-siRAPSYN and scFv-OA2-siRAPSYN after incubation with saline or 1640 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) at 37  ℃ for various time factors (0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 h) have been respectively decided.

Assays of protein focus and coupling price

To find out scFv coupling price on liposome floor, BSA answer (0.5 mg/mL) of 0, 1, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 µL was respectively added to a 96-well plate. After addition of 20 µL ultra-pure water, every nicely was blended evenly with 200 µL BCA reagent to ascertain a normal curve. Subsequently, freshly ready scFv-OA2 liposome (500 µL) was centrifuged with a 100 kDa ultrafiltration tube at 5000 × g for 15 min to acquire the answer. The answer containing free scFv (20 µL) was added to every nicely in a 96-well plate. Then, 200 µL of BCA reagent was added, gently blended and incubated at 37 ℃ for 30 min. The absorption at 562 nm was recorded with triplicated wells for every group. The focus (Ci) of scFv within the answer was calculated based on the usual curve, and the coupling price was calculated based on following method:

$$Coupling , price , = , left( {co – ci} proper)/Co , instances , 100%$$

the place, Co is the focus of complete scFv, Ci is the focus of free scFv within the answer.

Mobile uptake of scFv-OA2-siRAPSYN

K562, KU812 and MEG-01 cells have been inoculated into 6-well plates at a density of 1 × 10^6 cells per mL. Cells have been cultured with FAM-labeled siNC, OA2-siNC, scFv-OA2-siNC and scFv-OA2-siNC with scFv at a dose of two μg siRNA in a damp ambiance of 5% CO2 at 37 °C for 12 h after which collected for movement cytometry evaluation (BD FACS Celesta).

The intracellular lysosomal escape of scFv-OA2-siRAPSYN

Poly-D-Lysine-coated cell slides have been positioned in a 24-well plate prematurely, and K562 cells have been inoculated at a density of 5 × 10^5 cells per mL. Then, cells have been incubated with FAM-labeled siNC and scFv-OA2-siNC in a damp ambiance of 5% CO2 on the dose of 1 μg siRNA for six h. The 24-well plates have been taken out and washed twice with preheated hanks buffer (Vazyme, Nanjing, China). Then, Lysosomal stain (Abcam, Cambridge, GB) was added and incubated at 37 ℃ with 5% CO2 for 30 min, after which washed twice with hanks buffer at 37  ℃ and glued with 4% paraformaldehyde for 15 min. The nuclei fractions have been stained with DAPI for five min, and the slides have been eliminated after 3 times of washing with PBS. A drop of fluorescence quencher was dropped on the slides, after fastening and sealing the slides, they have been noticed underneath a fluorescent microscope (Lecia DM-2500).

The antitumor results of scFv-OA2-siRAPSYN in subcutaneously transplanted tumor mannequin

A mix of 1*10^6 K562 cells at logarithmic progress stage with matrix gum (Beyotime, Shanghai, China) was injected into the lateral stomach of 4-week-old NCG feminine mice. When the tumor quantity reached ~ 50 mm3, the mice have been randomly divided into 4 teams: saline, scFv-OA2-siNC, OA2-siRAPSYN, and scFv-OA2-siRAPSYN. Ten μg per mouse was injected into the tumor each two days, and tumor quantity and mouse weight have been recorded. The mice have been euthanized when the tumor quantity reached 1500 mm3. The method used to calculate tumor quantity was: tumor quantity = (size × width2)/2. The tumor tissues have been dissected, mounted with 4% paraformaldehyde, embedded in paraffin, sliced and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) or TUNEL or Ki67. The sections have been photographed utilizing a Lecia fluorescent microscope.

Survival take a look at in xenografted mouse mannequin

To ascertain a xenografted mouse mannequin, K562 cells have been contaminated with lentivirus Fluc-GV260 (Genechem, Shanghai, China). K562 cells with steady expression of luciferase have been screened out utilizing Puromucin (Beyotime, Shanghai, China) to acquire Luc+ K562 cells. Then, 1 × 10^7 /200 μl K562 cells or Luc+ K562 cells have been injected into the tail vein of 4-week-old NCG feminine mice. Forty mice with K562 cells have been randomly divided into 4 teams (saline, scFv-OA2-siNC, OA2-siRAPSYN, and scFv-OA2-siRAPSYN). Twelve mice with Luc+ K562cells have been additionally randomly divided into corresponding 4 teams (n = 3). After 7 days, 2.5 nmol of various siRNA preparations have been administered by way of caudal vein of the mice in every group. LNP-siRNA was administered each two days and the survival time of every mouse was recorded. The fluorescence of luc+K562 xenografted mice was monitored by IVIS Lumina III (PerkinElmer, MA, USA) in vivo imaging system on the identical time. On the finish of the experiments, earlier than taking images, potassium salt (Beyotime, Shanghai, China) was intraperitoneally injected to trigger the loss of life of all mice.

Biodistribution of scFv-OA2-siRAPSYN

9 mice with xenografted leukemia have been randomly divided into three teams: siRNA, OA2-siRAPSYN, and scFv-OA2-siRAPSYN. Mice have been handled with whole-body hair elimination, and a couple of.5 nmol Cy5-siRNA was administered by way of tail vein in every group. Fluorescence depth of the mice was detected by utilizing IVIS® Spectrum Imaging System (PerkinElmer, MA, USA) at 0, 3, 6 and 24 h, and isoflurane was used for anesthesia. After 24 h of administration, coronary heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney and femoral head of the mice have been collected, and the fluorescence values of Cy5-siRNA in every organ have been detected by ex vivo imaging.

Statistical evaluation

All statistical analyses have been carried out utilizing GraphPad Prism 8.0 (GraphPad Software program Inc., CA, USA). Picture J software program was used for semi-quantitative evaluation of protein bands. Knowledge have been in contrast utilizing pupil T-test between two teams and unusual univariate evaluation of Variance (ANOVA) between three or extra teams. The distinction was thought of statistically important when *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001, ****P < 0.0001 and “ns” indicated no significance (two-tailed distribution).



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