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Bottleneck #06: Onboarding

How did you get into the bottleneck?

A rising startup generally underinvests in its onboarding course of. The
must scale up headcount quickly can come about unexpectedly. An occasion
can set off the crew scaling – maybe the product took off with
prospects, or the startup acquired an organization or pivoted in a brand new product
path. Rapidly, plans change to how many individuals the startup now wants
to realize their new objectives, the recruiting crew begins interviewing and
making provides. With added strain, you don’t take time to optimize the
onboarding course of. If an efficient onboarding system wasn’t already in place, the
new workers are dropped into groups, assigned some duties, and left to
determine tips on how to turn out to be productive for themselves. It’s significantly
problematic if crew members aren’t collaboratively serving to the brand new
worker stand up to hurry, there is no onboarding documentation, the code
is inconceivable to learn, or the product objectives and KPIs unclear. Then new
workers can turn out to be misplaced, dissatisfied and underproductive. On this
article we are going to discover indicators that your organization is bottlenecked by an
ineffective onboarding course of, and the most effective observe options we now have
seen work at Thoughtworks Scaleup Studio.

Along with onboarding new hires, the method is utilized when
reorganizing groups. The studio consider the flexibility to study, fail quick and
refocus is a necessary ability for profitable scaling. A nimble startup will
pivot because it responds to learnings and panorama modifications, this includes
altering product crew objectives and reassigning sources to greatest goal the
new objectives. To do that simply, we want the flexibility for the reassigned crew
members to stand up to hurry shortly. A lot of the capabilities on this
article, will even apply to reorganizing.

Onboarding is a key enterprise course of

Onboarding is commonly seen as merely granting entry and doing a set of
administrative duties earlier than handing new workers to their supervisor and
crew. It is not considered an end-to-end enterprise course of. However a
well-run onboarding course of addresses social and cultural integration
and facilitates collaboration among the many totally different features {that a} new
worker has to work together with. The onboarding course of sometimes includes
human sources, engineering administration, authorized, IT Operation, safety,
and product crew members. Spanning so many teams means it may be very
disjointed. Optimizing the method is troublesome as a result of typically nobody
owns the entire course of, and you will need to carry all of the totally different gamers

Software program leaders put plenty of effort into shaping hiring plans and
supporting recruiting efforts, however typically neglect to offer a lot thought to
how new workers will turn out to be efficient. We consider this to be a
mistake, as efficient onboarding acts as a “multiplier impact” for brand spanking new

From a scientific perspective, what’s the worth of a brand new worker?
With out correct onboarding, new hires will solely exhibit a fraction of
their worth and productiveness, some as little as 50%. With an ROI at this
stage, you might be much less more likely to obtain your meant objectives. Leaders are
pressured to do extra hiring, which is able to improve group
complexity and workload for managers. To keep away from this, we advocate
placing the identical quantity of effort into optimizing onboarding as you
would hiring new workers.

In our opinion the onboarding course of doesn’t finish after per week or a
month – it retains going till the particular person is absolutely productive. As quickly as
somebody accepts a suggestion, the onboarding course of begins, adopted by a
strong new rent orientation, receiving of laptops and entry to
acceptable methods. It continues after they be a part of their crew, as they
perform their duties for the primary time, construct relationships with
their crew members and managers, and develop habits round their frequent
duties. The final section of onboarding allows an worker to succeed in full
productiveness, the place they’ll contribute to the crew creatively, train
others and contribute again into the onboarding course of. This timeline is
depending on function, area and complexity.

Optimum onboarding timeline

To gauge how you might be doing, this desk represents what we observe to
be optimum timelines for a developer onboarding. We’ll clarify the
ideas talked about right here additional in the remainder of the article:

Milestone Accomplished By
Entry to all HR and administrative methods Day one
Entry to workstation and private growth setting is
setup with needed instruments
Day one
Firm mission and enterprise objectives are defined and
Day two
Full a push to manufacturing for a trivial change, assisted
by peer
Day three
Supervisor has set expectations with worker and given them an
Week one
Paired with colleague on growing an actual characteristic all the best way
to manufacturing and carried out defect decision
Week two
Understood key buyer issues and inner operation
Week two
Developer: In a position to be an “Anchor” on a narrative Week 3 – 5†
Developer: In a position to lead assist calls Week 5 – 7†

† relying on complexity and expertise

Indicators you might be approaching a scaling bottleneck

New individuals can’t entry instruments and methods

Most new joinees normally include a way of pleasure and
anticipation about their new task, desirous to show themselves in
their new setting. Having to attend for entry to fundamental sources like
the work laptop computer, supply management, crew documentation portals, take a look at
environments, software program licenses, and many others. can dampen the spirits of even the
most enthusiastic candidates. Not realizing which methods to get entry to
and having to chase particular people to learn the way will be very

To identify these delays you’ll be able to monitor the steps new workers are
taking. Control the variety of tickets opened and the quantity of
time it takes to resolve these tickets.

New builders can’t make a manufacturing deployment

A quantifiable metric to make use of is how lengthy it takes a brand new worker
to put in writing code, commit and deploy all the best way to manufacturing. This
ought to occur within the first week– ideally the primary couple of days. It
doesn’t need to be a posh process, it may be one thing very trivial.
This metric is an indicator that the developer has their pc and
growth setting arrange appropriately and has the whole lot they should
push to manufacturing independently. We discover conditions the place a brand new
developer has been within the firm weeks and even months, and has not
deployed something to manufacturing.

Newcomers really feel orphaned

Particularly at startups, most managers are laser-focused on new
initiatives, and so they have extra work than they’ll deal with. It is easy
to deprioritize integrating and bringing direct reviews up to the mark. New
workers are left to determine issues on their very own; studying methods,
forming relationships, and tips on how to get entry to sources they want.
Worse in the event that they haven’t been given a transparent purpose, they could find yourself working
on the fallacious factor. The worker turns into an orphan, leading to a lot
decrease productiveness or fast attrition. Cultural issues like this are
exhausting to identify. We advocate listening to your managers and suggestions from
new workers. Exit interviews are additionally precious information.

An excessive amount of deal with particular person work

When a startup scales by including new workers, this could set off a
totally different mode of operation. It was a small crew that constructed the preliminary
product and expertise platform. Every engineer was targeted on constructing
and supporting part of the appliance, probably by themselves. With the
growth into a bigger crew, an issue we frequently observe is the tenured
workers aren’t dedicating sufficient time to onboarding the brand new workers
– collaborating and pairing with new engineers, documenting how they
work and explaining the explanations for technical selections, and many others. This makes
onboarding very troublesome.

With the expanded crew dimension, aims shouldn’t solely deal with
particular person contributions, however ought to embody how the product crew as a complete is
performing. When retrospecting the product crew ought to ideally search for
alternatives to assist new hires turn out to be extra productive. An anti-pattern
we see is planning with people allotted to streams of labor by
themselves, as this removes the chance to switch information.

Not sufficient openness to alter

If you rent new workers, they probably include totally different
experiences than the prevailing crew (particularly if you’re hiring outdoors
of your private community). They’re going to have totally different opinions and
viewpoints. Too typically we see firms not making the most of this. A
typical scenario is that the startup probably has a crew of “previous fingers”
which have discovered a option to work, have their very own idiosyncrasies, and there
is a historical past to each resolution. The crew is dogmatic in its approaches
and shoots down the brand new concepts of the newcomer. This leaves the brand new rent
feeling unempowered, and never appreciated.

Once more that is cultural and exhausting to identify, however some anti-patterns to
look out for are:

  • Present workers hogging the assembly, speaking shortly, or not
    giving sufficient time for brand spanking new workers to contribute or make clear.
  • Being overly protecting of the established order; capturing down concepts –
    “we tried that”, “it may by no means work right here…”.
  • Again-channeling by means of unofficial channels; tenured workers
    would possibly get work carried out by means of their established community doing them a
    “favor”, relatively than by means of a documented course of.

Seemingly easy issues take too lengthy

The effectiveness of your growth setting for frequent duties
will probably be uncovered when onboarding new workers. The friction could have
already been felt by present workers, however including extra magnifies the
drawback. Every new worker should learn to remedy frequent
issues and uncover workarounds. Examples may be flaky automated
assessments, inaccurate documentation, gradual private dev setting,
environments which can be outdated, or a gradual dogmatic code evaluation
course of. We will monitor a few of these issues by monitoring low stage
metrics (e.g. CI construct time, PR evaluation time, unit take a look at run time) and
tech debt gadgets that groups are highlighting as friction.

Quick turnover

Turnover fee of newcomers is a lagging indicator. There may be
many causes for a excessive turnover fee. Nevertheless it is price
investigating. It might be associated to your onboarding course of. It may
be that your new workers aren’t being correctly skilled, and welcomed
within the firm. Your crew ought to monitor the speed and the way it’s
trending, complement with surveys after 6 months and a yr for brand spanking new
workers. You possibly can then use the learnings to enhance the onboarding
course of frequently.

Documentation cannot reply questions from new hires

New hires, particularly lateral hires, normally know what must be
carried out at a excessive stage. Nevertheless, idiosyncrasies of the brand new setting can
get in the best way of finishing even mundane duties. For instance, not
realizing the placement of the supply repositories or the bottom URL to the
integration take a look at setting. Effectively-structured onboarding documentation
may also help increase productiveness, construct confidence and customarily present a
nice working expertise. To constantly enhance and preserve the
documentation updated, new hires ought to be inspired to seek out bugs in
it and repair them.

How do you get out of the bottleneck?

When you’re interested by designing your onboarding course of it is a
good first step to assume holistically about worker effectiveness. In
the next options part we are going to describe tips on how to create a path
to effectiveness, an instance of onboarding optimization utilized at
Checkr, after which some strategies we view as necessary.

Create a path to effectiveness

In maximizing developer effectiveness
Tim talked concerning the concept of specializing in outcomes relatively than outputs,
and the way engaged workers can create essentially the most worth for what you are promoting
and your buyer. Empowered workers aren’t merely coding a
requirement, designing to a spec, or creating options based mostly on requests
from a gross sales crew. They’re pondering creatively about the issue house,
developing with price environment friendly, scalable and modern options. Let’s
have a look at what an empowered worker wants, and the way onboarding would possibly allow


How onboarding allows it

Clear view of the corporate mission and enterprise objectives

ought to construct pleasure for the mission, outlining what led to its
creation, what the long run would possibly maintain, and the way an worker can
contribute to that. This could embody a view of the present product

How does the corporate become profitable (or intend to)?

To instill a enterprise sense and a deal with frugality, new workers
ought to understand how the corporate presently prices for his or her companies, its
profitability, and its stage of funding.

Empathy for the client’s expertise

Set an expectation for all
workers to consider the client. We will emphasize this by a
variety of actions – observing the client utilizing the system, utilizing
the system as a buyer (if doable), and studying prior analysis
into buyer issues.

An understanding for inner operations

Most software program methods
have totally different customers (past the goal buyer). It’s necessary to
perceive all of these facets, in order that technologists can design
options that make these inner customers environment friendly. That is
significantly necessary at scale

Enterprise area understanding

Many enterprise domains are fairly
complicated. Understanding occurs over time, however we are able to begin with
overviews from an skilled, and steered readings

Working relationship with their crew

To be able to have open
conversations about issues and concepts new hires want a stage of
familiarity and vulnerability with their friends and supervisor. Onboarding
ought to embody actions to allow this. It is harder to do
remotely, so we advocate groups getting collectively in particular person inside the
first few months of a brand new rent becoming a member of.

Clear understanding of their aims

An empowered worker
wants a function, they should know what their firm would really like them
to realize, and the way they’re going to be assessed in direction of that

Present crew topologies

The brand new rent ought to have a transparent
understanding of the possession of merchandise and methods and whom they
can discuss to get info. An up-to-date org chart with the place they
sit in it is important. Deliberately establishing some 1:1s throughout the
first weeks is an efficient option to encourage communication throughout groups and

How expertise is leveraged

Each startup makes use of expertise to
innovate and scale, so all workers ought to have a base stage of
understanding. We don’t consider it’s efficient to divide roles into
‘technical’ and ‘non-technical’; some roles are simply ‘extra technical’
than others.

There will probably be role-specific wants. A developer wants know tips on how to:


How onboarding allows it

Write code and push to manufacturing

An setting that is
absolutely setup and dealing, with entry to deploy, they’re in a position to do it
independently. The setting provides them confidence that it’ll discover
high quality issues, and permit them to rollback safely.

Debug and repair manufacturing issues

Entry to clear observability
that spans methods. This could embody documentation, runbooks and
walkthrough movies of typical duties.

Perceive present code, structure, and

Efficient information administration system, entry to all supply code
repositories, entry to dependent groups and information switch with
teammates and SMEs

Measure the progress of their options

Enterprise and product
analytics, and likewise technical metrics (efficiency, availability,
price, high quality measures). It ought to embody capability to experiment with
options (prototypes, A/B assessments) and entry to qualitative

Whereas this text is generally aimed toward builders, we are able to increase the
ideas into different roles. A product supervisor would possibly want:


How onboarding allows it

First-hand expertise with prospects

Begin with an introduction
to key prospects. Additionally, product managers want the house to construct
relationships; we typically discover that the founder desires to be the
conduit, which may make it troublesome to get unfiltered

Articulate present product technique

A brand new product supervisor ought to
be capable of shortly perceive the present technique, the related
alerts, what the present product bets are, and in the event that they’re

Discover and entry analytics

Ideally that is self-service and
exploratory, relatively than having to request reviews. This consists of
product, behavioral, monetary, advertising and gross sales metrics, and
system efficiency metrics.

Be taught from earlier bets and inflection factors

The product is
presently designed a particular approach for a lot of particular causes
(which will not be apparent). To be able to efficiently evolve the
product, it helps to know why it is the best way it’s.

Construct experiment prototypes and “mess around” within the

Usually product managers don’t have the entry they should use demo
environments or the sources to create prototypes

A designer would possibly must know tips on how to:


How onboarding allows it

Entry tooling to create lo-fi and hi-fi property

Along with
the polished product, a designer ought to be capable of simply create
clickable prototypes, and be capable of conduct consumer testing with them
with out a lot ceremony.

Discover and use branding pointers and design methods

To make sure
consistency and make designing and implementing UIs simpler, these
ought to be accessible and properly documented. The maturity of those
methods will rely upon the maturity of the startup, evolving from a
shared design file to a residing part library.

Uncover earlier consumer analysis

Recordings of earlier consumer
testing, interview documentation, and synthesized analysis output
ought to be accessible and saved in an organization information base relatively
than in private silos.

Carry out A/B assessments and entry behavioral analytics

The consumer
interface ought to be instrumented so {that a} designer can get as a lot
perception as doable in a self-service approach. A variety of A/B testing
frameworks enable for impartial launch and evaluation with out
developer assist for sure kinds of modifications.

This listing is an instance and never meant to be exhaustive; we recommend
you have a look at the aims and the “jobs to be carried out” on your roles in
the context of your organization.

For example how this works in actuality, we’re going to use the
instance of Checkr

Case Research: Checkr

Checkr, an HR expertise firm
powering the way forward for work, partnered with Thoughtworks on
scaling between 2018-2020. Whereas engaged on their structure, high quality
and platform engineering, Thoughtworks consultants seen the
effectiveness of Checkr’s onboarding course of. When Checkr grew past
the preliminary crew, they invested in making a structured onboarding
course of for all workers. The method was designed to construct empathy for
their prospects, perceive the enterprise, and produce workers to
productiveness as shortly as doable. Considered a essential functionality
by Checkr management, their onboarding course of allowed them to develop from
30 to 300 engineering workers. Regardless of their success, Checkr continues to
evolve the method as they gather suggestions, and check out new concepts.

Cross-functional onboarding week to know the mission, and
construct empathy

Every month, Checkr ran a week-long onboarding “bootcamp” for all
new workers. The purpose of the bootcamp was to supply workers a
holistic understanding of the corporate and product by listening to from
management and from different groups throughout Checkr. Members from different
features akin to buyer success, finance, product and engineering
would evaluation crew processes and product use circumstances with the brand new

Together with the cross useful overviews, new workers got
additional alternatives to construct buyer empathy and perceive the
drawback house that Checkr aimed to resolve. New workers would go to
the native courthouse to tug a file as a part of a buyer’s
background verify and sit in on a buyer assist name because the buyer
success consultant used Checkr’s instruments.

Initially, cohorts have been round 20 individuals however grew over time. An
extra good thing about the bootcamp was that new workers shortly
constructed an inner community. Checkr’s Director of Engineering Krista
Moroder stated: “I nonetheless use the preliminary community I made – considered one of my
onboarding buddies continues to be considered one of my first factors of contact within the
Authorized division.”

After the bootcamp, they performed a role-specific 2-day workshop
adopted by onboarding to their respective groups.

Path to productiveness for a developer

The worker would have entry to all of the companies and instruments they
want from day one. Engineers can arrange their private growth
setting with a script in just a few hours. Checkr has a said purpose
{that a} new worker ought to deploy on day one, however truly it
modifications crew by crew, on common it’s inside the first week. They’re
presently transferring from a laptop-based developer setting to a cloud
based mostly method, with the intention to hurry up onboarding, due to the
added capability and simpler configuration administration.

A number of groups will use pair programming, which implies a brand new
worker can leap straight into pairing on no matter process is the main target.
Krista talked about pair programming

“Thoughtworks was the catalyst for the pair programming on the crew
I initially led. The first motivation was to cut back high quality
defects, scale back context switching, improve shared information, enhance
cycle time, and preserve individuals linked and engaged after we went
full-remote throughout the pandemic. Groups use a mannequin the place engineers
select pairs for the day when the every day standup ends.”

At Checkr they use a “you construct you run it” method, the place every
developer is predicted to assist the methods their groups personal. To study
how to do that, after 1-2 months of becoming a member of, a brand new developer will
begin by co-piloting the on-call assist with a colleague. They will
sometimes resolve an issue independently after 2 months for an
inner product, or 3-6 months for a client product, relying on
seniority. For Krista “a productiveness indicator is that their supervisor
or a tenured developer trusts the brand new developer to resolve complicated
points finish to finish.”

High quality Awards and Studying Weeks

Onboarding is partly concerning the actions that occur when somebody
joins, it is also concerning the making a tradition that leads individuals to
effectiveness. Checkr wished to encourage a steady studying
tradition, the corporate has run participant-led “Studying Weeks” 2-3
instances a yr, every time with the intention to deal with a distinct
functionality, like infrastructure or high quality, for per week. Surveys are
run earlier than the camps, to know present gaps in information. These
weeks provide an opportunity to study from friends. In a super world,
everybody would share experience frequently. However in a busy startup,
that doesn’t at all times occur. Studying Weeks set the intention, and
helps individuals turn out to be snug with asking for assist and sharing

An necessary a part of Checkr’s common all fingers is the High quality
Awards, the place people are nominated by their friends and acknowledged
for his or her contributions. As an alternative of simply celebrating typical
milestones like product launches, individuals are acknowledged for excellence
in documentation, testing, deprecation and refactoring. This
emphasizes a tradition of constructing pleasure round excessive technical
high quality, and of peer assist.

Past the preliminary onboarding interval, the crew sends surveys
often to evaluate the entire course of. This helps them monitor whether or not
their processes are efficient and have set a basis for fulfillment in
the corporate.

Embrace new hires within the firm tradition

Bringing in new individuals to a startup carries the chance for
higher variety in ideas and concepts. The expertise and information of
new hires will make our merchandise higher, applied sciences extra modern
and processes extra environment friendly. To have the ability to actually leverage these new
hires does require work from the present crew to combine them
correctly. It is troublesome for a brand new rent to attach and contribute to
the prevailing crew with out the correct setting. The present social
capital and status of the prevailing crew is intimidating. If we are able to
encourage the brand new workers’ voices, they’ll be capable of communicate up and
recommend new concepts with out worry of being shot down.

Creating this protected and weak house is troublesome. From day one,
beginning with new rent orientation, the brand new worker ought to really feel like
they’re a part of the corporate’s mission and might contribute to its
evolution. Leaders can begin by setting an instance in how they work together
and set the rules of the corporate. It will come all the way down to particular person
interactions. We advocate instilling a tradition of being aware to
others, being conscious of how others are performing and feeling, particularly
throughout the onboarding interval.

Nail the post-offer and first-day expertise

It is stated that you simply by no means get a second likelihood to make a primary
impression, and this actually applies to onboarding. Onboarding begins
with the primary interview. The way in which interviewers work together with candidates
will start to set a precedent for the way they understand the corporate’s
tradition and the way they need to behave. From then on, the experiences on the
first day, first week, first month and past matter and may have a
super affect on whether or not they’ll succeed and be joyful.

Due to this fact, the time main as much as the primary day of employment will be
very essential. As soon as the candidate accepts the supply, make it possible for
there is a clear level of contact (ideally an e-mail group as a substitute of
a person) for the brand new worker to hunt clarification.

All of the instruments an worker wants ought to be accessible by way of self-service
and accessible on day one. Nobody desires to spend the primary few weeks
enjoying “whack-a-mole” creating tickets for all of the permissions they
want – This consists of having IT methods that auto-enroll workers with
advantages, efficiency monitoring, payroll and information repositories.

An onboarding guidelines could be a helpful option to information workers on
their first day. For instance, at Thoughtworks new hires are given their
personal Trello board with onboarding duties. All duties have step-by-step
directions and get in touch with info for additional help, and are
prioritized within the order they need to be accomplished. This provides new hires
a prepared reckoner to finish fundamental duties like establishing direct deposits
to their wage account, and likewise extra complicated ones like establishing
their work laptop computer. As well as, it permits them to trace how they’re
progressing in opposition to frequent duties all on their very own and tips on how to hunt down

Determine 1: Thoughtworks’ onboarding guidelines

New hires are assigned an onboarding buddy to assist them by means of it.
To make this much more seamless, we now have a “First 12 months Expertise” chat
group the place new and seasoned workers alike pose questions and get
assist. It is not unusual for even long-tenured workers to proceed
utilizing it for a number of months after they be a part of and is quoted as one of many
most favored facets of the general onboarding course of.

Put money into self-service information administration

It is stunning how a lot proprietary information will be shortly
amassed. Concepts or approaches may be properly understood from earlier
classes, however by no means written down. If we don’t take the time to doc
issues, it may possibly make the primary months irritating for brand spanking new workers. We
subscribe to the agile precept of “Working software program over complete
documentation”; software program code ought to be readable however there’s nonetheless a
want for some focused documentation. Greatest practices embody:

  • Up-to-date succinct technical documentation round libraries, API,
    dependencies and integrations – A suggestions loop to the technical
    house owners dramatically improves the usefulness and freshness of
  • A taxonomy and a central seek for documentation, to reduce the
    period of time to seek out info
  • Shared rules and practices: an understanding of how a crew
    sometimes operates helps a brand new worker alter to a brand new tradition.
  • A file of historic technical and product selections permits for
    higher context behind thought processes.
  • Write-up of post-mortems of degradation of service. All issues
    are studying alternatives, and documenting the issue and mitigation
    helps keep away from future issues.

Thoughtworks’ Smart Defaults

Through the years, Thoughtworks has amassed a set of practices,
patterns, pointers and a set of common good recommendation that has
made us profitable. Localized design-making and autonomy is vital to
Thoughtworks’ tradition, however we wished to supply a “paved street” for
lateral workers to start out from. This consists of defaults for varied
colleges akin to builders, architects, enterprise analysts, product
managers, program managers, and govt stakeholders. Every of those
even have their respective chat, e-mail teams and communities the place
anybody can ask questions, solicit suggestions, share concepts and problem
the established order.

The event wise defaults embody a documentation round a
variety of key practices. Some examples embody

Frequent and steady integration

Check Pushed Growth (TDD)

Pair growth

Construct safety in

Quick and verified automated construct

Automated deployment pipeline

Early and steady deployment

High quality and debt successfully managed

Construct for manufacturing

Quick Suggestions

Quick suggestions means with the ability to discover out whether or not a change has been
profitable in moments not days. It may be that unit assessments have handed,
or that we have not damaged manufacturing, or {that a} buyer is proud of
what we have constructed.


Repeatability is the boldness and predictability that comes from
eradicating guide duties that introduce bizarre inconsistencies. We additionally need
to spend time on actions which can be extra necessary than troubleshooting
one thing that ought to have simply labored


We wish software program that comprises no extra complexity than it must do
a very good job. We construct for what we want now, not what we predict may be
coming. However we make decisions that enable our software program to quickly change to
meet the necessities which can be coming.

↑ Deployment Frequency


↓ Lead Time for modifications

↓ Deployment Frequency

We’re releasing this text in installments. The ultimate installment
will have a look at the function of pair programming, private setting setup
and eradicating friction from the onboarding course of..

To seek out out after we publish the subsequent installment subscribe to the
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